Overview of background conditions

Specifications

Reference

Greenhouse gases ODPs

As recommended for the SPARC CCMI hindcast scenario REF-C1SD (Eyring et al, 2013) www.met.reading.ac.uk/ccmi/

SST and SIC

Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set (HADISST, Rayner et al., 2003)

www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadisst/

 

 

 

Overview of sulphur emission

Sulphur emission

Reference

SO2 Anthropogenic

From MACC-CITY (Granier et al., 2011) for time period considered and as extended back to 1960 on ECCAD website eccad.sedoo.fr/eccad_extract_interface/JSF/page_login.jsf

SO2 Biomass burning

Biomass burning: GFEDv4 (http://www.globalfiredata.org/index.html)

From MACC-CITY (Granier et al., 2011) for time period considered and as extended back to 1960 on ECCAD website)

Continuously degassing volcanoes

"continuous_volc.1x1" from Aerocom-I (Dentener et al., 2006) based on Andres and Kasgnoc (1998) which presents an average estimate of the contribution of silent degassing volcanoes to the global sulphur budget aerocom.met.no/download/emissions/AEROCOM_B-PRE/other_ascii/

DMS

Sea water concentration from Lana et al. (2011) is recommended www.bodc.ac.uk/solas_integration/implementation_products/group1/dms/

Biogenic modeller’s choice

OCS

Concentrations are fixed at surface and equal to 510 pptv (Montzka et al., 2013; ASAP2006)

 

 

 

Overview of volcanic emission data sets for the different TAR experiments

Volcanic Database

VolcDB1

VolcDB2

VolcDB3

VolcDB4

VolcDBSUB

VolcDB1_3D

Covering period

Dec/1997 - Apr/2012

Jan/1990 - Dec/2014

1978-2014

1979-2010

Dec/1997-Apr/2012

Observational

data sets

MIPAS,.GOMOS, SAGEII, TOMS, OMI

OMI, OMPS, IASI, TOMS, GOME/2, , AIRS, MLS, MIPAS

TOMS, HIRS/2, AIRS, OMI, MLS, IASI and OMPS

TOMS, OMI

MIPAS,.GOMOS, SAGEII, TOMS, OMI

Reference

Brühl. (2018), Bingen et al. (2017),

Link

Mills et al. (2016, Neely and Schmidt (2016))

Link

Carn et al. (2016)

Link 

 

Diehl et al.,(2012), AeroCom-II HCA0 v1/v2,

Link

Subset of 8 volcanoes

Contains SO2 emissions and plume altitudes averaged over the 3 mandatory databases, details are given in the appendix (Table S6)

3D netCDF

Brühl et al. (2015), Bingen et al. (2017),

Link

Table 4: Overview of volcanic emission data sets for the different TAR experiments. Sensor acronyms: (MIPAS: Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding; GOMOS: Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars TOMS: Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer; OMI: Ozone Monitoring Instrument; OMPS: Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite; IASI: Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer; GOME: Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; AIRS: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder; MLS: Microwave Limb Sounder; HIRS: High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder; (References to the observational data and emission sources included are given in the reference paper and for VolcDB1(_3D) also in Table S2.1. VolcDB1_3D is a three-dimensional database, containing the spatial distributions of the injected SO2 as initially observed by the satellite instruments. In both versions of VolcDB1, the integral SO2 mass of each injection is consistent.

 

 

References

Andres, R. J. and Kasgnoc, A. D.: A time-averaged inventory of subaerial volcanic sulfur emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25251–25261, 1998.

Bingen, C., Robert, C. E., Stebel, K., Brühl, C., Schallock, J., Vanhellemont, F., Mateshvili N., Höpfner, M., Trickl, T., Barnes, J.E., Jumelet, J., Vernier, J.-P. ,Popp T, Gerrit de Leeuw, G., Pinnock, S.: Stratospheric aerosol data records for the climate change initiative: Development, validation and application to chemistry-climate modelling. Remote Sensing of Environment. doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.06.002, 2017

Brühl, Christoph (2018). Volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1998 to 2012. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. cera-www.dkrz.de/WDCC/ui/cerasearch/entry

Carn, S.A., Clarisse, L., and Prata, A. J.: Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing, J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 311, 99-134, 2016.

Dentener, F., Kinne, S., Bond, T., Boucher, O., Cofala, J., Generoso, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Hoelzemann, J. J., Ito, A., Marelli, L., Penner, J. E., Putaud, J.-P., Textor, C., Schulz, M., van der Werf, G. R., and Wilson, J.: Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4321-4344, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4321-2006, 2006.

Diehl, T., Heil, A., Chin, M., Pan, X., Streets, D., Schultz, M., and Kinne, S.: Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 24895–24954, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-24895-2012, 2012.

Eyring, V., J.-F. Lamarque et al., Overview of IGAC/SPARC Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) Community Simulations in Support of Upcoming Ozone and Climate Assessments, SPARC Newsletter No. 40, p. 48-66, 2013

Granier, C., Bessagnet, B., Bond, T. C., D’Angiola, A., Denier van der Gon, H., Frost, G. J., Heil, A., Kaiser, J. W., Kinne, S., Klimont, Z., Kloster, S., Lamarque, J.-F., Liousse, C., Masui, T., Meleux, F., Mieville, A., Ohara, T., Raut, J.-C., Riahi, K., Schultz, M. G., Smith, S. J., Thompson, A., Aardenne, J.,Werf, G. R., and Vuuren, D. P.: Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period. Climatic Change, 109, 163-190, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-011-0154-1, 2011.

Lana, A., Bell, T. G., Sinó, R., Vallina, S. M., Ballabrera-Poy, J., Kettle, A. J., Dachs, J., Bopp, L., Saltzman, E. S., Stefels, J., Johnson, J. E., and Liss, P. S.: An updated climatologyof surface dimethlysulfide concentrations and emission fluxesin the global ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 25, GB1004,doi:10.1029/2010gb003850, 2011.

Mills, M. J., Richter, J. H., Tilmes, S., Kravitz, B., MacMartin, D. G., Glanville, A. A., Tribbia; J.J. Lamarque, J.-F., Vitt,F. Schmidt, A., Gettelman, A., Hannay, C., Bacmeister, J.T. and Kinnison, D. E. (2017). Radiative and chemical response to interactive stratospheric sulfate aerosols in fully coupled CESM1 (WACCM). J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos, 122. doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027006, 2017.

Montzka, S. A., Calvert, P., Hall, B. D., Elkins, J. W., Conway, T. J., Tans, P. P., and Sweeney, C.: On the global distribution, seasonality, and budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide and some similarities with CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D09302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007665, 2007.

Neely, R. and Schmidt, A.: VolcanEESM: Global volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions database from 1850 to present -Version 1.0, Cent. Environ. Data Anal., doi:10.5285/76ebdc0b-0eed-4f70-b89e-55e606bcd568, 2016.

Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century, J. Geophys. Res.,108 14), 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670, 2003.


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